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Migration Policy Institute Podcasts

MPI is a nonprofit, nonpartisan think tank dedicated to the study of the movement of people worldwide.

Changing Climate, Changing Migration: Climate Change in the World’s Fastest Growing Economy

Posted in DefaultTag by Migration Policy Institute on November 17th, 2022

Guyana is a small country in South America that undoubtedly will be greatly transformed by the recent discovery of massive offshore oil reserves. Extremely vulnerable to climate change, with predictions that its capital will be underwater by 2030, Guyana has been known as a green champion, trapping more carbon dioxide than emits. How will the world’s fastest growing economy manage environmental change, particularly with economic growth and proximity to troubled Venezuela likely to drive significant immigration? We discuss these dynamics with Camila Idrovo and Jermaine Grant from the Pan American Development Foundation.

Ensuring Effective Language Access Services and Policies in Early Childhood Programs

Posted in US Immigration Policy, Immigrant Integration by Migration Policy Institute on October 17th, 2022

One in three young children in the United States is a Dual Language Learner (DLL), and nearly half of these children have at least one parent who is Limited English Proficient (LEP). Language access policies and services are critical to promoting the equitable participation of these families in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs, yet persisting gaps in participation for DLL children in many public ECEC programs demonstrate the need for improved language services to support this population. Amid this reality, the needs for even basic translation and interpretation for children and parents and relevant language skills among early childhood staff are often overlooked. Indeed, many early childhood services lack the necessary data and accountability measures to demonstrate equal access for DLL families, despite civil-rights requirements that they do so.

In this webinar, MPI experts provide an overview of a policy brief outlining federal and state efforts to implement language access policies in the early childhood field. The conversation examines the right to language access in federally funded services and the application of this right to early childhood programs. It also focuses on the language and other barriers that immigrant and DLL families face in accessing early childhood programs despite existing language access requirements, as well as opportunities to improve language services. It also marked the release of factsheets by state.

Migrant Integration: Learning from What Works in Times of Uncertainty

With millions fleeing war-torn Ukraine, questions about how to effectively promote migrant integration are again front and center. Integration policy is often forged in the heat of crises and led by political priorities, with limited resources devoted to making improvements along the way. As a result, lessons from promising innovations that tend to emerge particularly during crises often get lost. Understanding what works, under which conditions, and how to use this knowledge is crucial to design effective policies. Failure to embrace an evidence culture in migrant integration may come at a high human, financial, and societal cost for not only migrants, but also for governments and host societies. 

This webinar, organized as part of the HORIZON SPRING project on Sustainable Practices on Integration, brings together experts and policymakers to examine the state of the field and promising innovations that facilitate an evidence culture in migrant integration, particularly in contexts marked by uncertainty and limited resources, such as the current effort to integrate displaced Ukrainians. The discussion spotlights projects that demonstrate how an evidence culture can be leveraged to benefit migrant integration policymaking, including from the frontline reception of Ukrainian refugees. 

The webinar marked the publication of a policy brief that maps out the state of play of an evidence culture in migrant integration and identifies obstacles and promising steps policymakers at EU and national levels could take. It also previews the launch of a toolkit that will help policymakers and practitioners in their efforts to embed an evidence culture in migrant integration.

One Year On: The Situation for At-Risk Afghans in Afghanistan and Abroad

August 2022 marks the one-year withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan and the fall of Kabul to the Taliban. While the world watched the chaotic evacuation of Afghans via airlift, the suspension of aid and diplomatic relations and rise of new leadership further drove Afghanistan into a massive social and economic crisis where women and minorities became especially vulnerable. Humanitarian and development organizations have had to revisit their operations and approach while the needs of vulnerable Afghans grew even more pressing. A year on, what is the status of Afghans who made it to the United States and Europe, what pathways are there for those who remain behind and are in peril given their past work with U.S. and allied forces, have the United States and other governments delivered on their promise to assist these individuals, and what opportunities exist to improve the humanitarian situation for Afghans abroad and in Afghanistan?

This two-panel webinar reflects on the humanitarian and development challenges in Afghanistan and for neighboring countries, the difficult choices facing aid donors and their partners, and what needs to be done to ensure still at-risk Afghans are able to reach safety. The first panel addresses the humanitarian and development situation in Afghanistan and the region, and the second panel discusses ongoing efforts to secure safe pathways and prospects for innovations and further international coordination.

Moving Beyond Pandemic: Digital Health Credentials in India and Africa: Are COVID-19 Travel Passes Catalyzing New Tech Innovations?

Posted in International Migration, Moving Beyond Pandemic by Migration Policy Institute on August 2nd, 2022

Digital health credentialing is one of the main tools to safely return to pre-pandemic levels of mobility and plan for the next public health crisis. Digital innovations—including automatic verification of health and vaccination results—are reopening economies and global mobility while setting the standard for new ways of managing mobility and health that will outlast the pandemic, especially in regions that had lower levels of digital use and more limited health and border management systems. Notably, India’s DIVOC system and the African Union Trusted Traveler system are examples of how the pandemic fueled large-scale innovation in this regard. In this episode, we discuss these developments with Dr. Pramod Varma, chief architect of India's digital identity program, Aadhar, and of its COVID pass system, DIVOC; Dr. Edem Adzogenu, co-chair and founder of the Afro Champions Initiative, which supports regional integration and implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement; and Lawrence Huang, a Migration Policy institute (MPI) associate policy analyst working on its Task Force on Borders and Mobility During and After COVID-19.

Migrant Integration Governance After the Pandemic: Lasting Adaptations?

Posted in Immigrant Integration, International Migration, European Migration, Migration Policy Institute Europe by Migration Policy Institute on July 19th, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic and its fallout have triggered the perfect storm in migrant integration, with migrants and refugees experiencing disproportionate health and economic effects. They also upended the ability of policymakers and practitioners to respond in typical ways, given the halt to the delivery of in-person services and the forced shift online.

Marking the release of a Migration Policy Institute Europe report, this webinar examines how government strategies, practices, and instruments of integration policymaking have adapted during the pandemic both in Europe and North America. How did policymakers ensure effective and agile responses in a context of COVID-induced disruption, and what can be learned to promote cost-effective integration policies moving forward?

Forging Partnerships to Make the Reintegration of Migrants More Effective and Sustainable

There is no "one-size-fits-all" reintegration model that can ensure success for returning migrants and the communities into which they are re-entering. Returnees have complex, interconnected economic, social, and psychosocial needs that typically cannot be covered by one single service provider. Returning migrants need to be able to access core public services (documentation, work opportunities, and health care) as well as context-specific local initiatives that will endure even after reintegration programs end. Yet while there is a growing acknowledgment that better partnerships between reintegration providers and local actors are needed to expand the variety of support measures available to returnees, there is no consensus as to how these connections (or "referrals") should be organized, what types of services referral partners should deliver (and what support they need to do so), and how outcomes can best be monitored over time.

This MPI Europe webinar, releasing a brief, examines how to design referral mechanisms so that returnees receive the core services they need, while also ensuring support is embedded within local contexts (for instance delivered by trusted providers, or calibrated to specific ethnic, cultural, or linguistic needs). Speakers explore questions around how major donors and providers can effectively partner with local actors, striking the right balance between formal reintegration programs (that are often more established but can be removed from local needs) and local initiatives (which may lack capacity but be better placed to cultivate trust with beneficiaries). How can programs be embedded within the fabric of local communities and "professionalized" to ensure that migrants do not fall through the cracks and outcomes are monitored over time?

Alternativas a la migración irregular: Ampliación de los programas de trabajo temporal en Canadá, México y Costa Rica

Cada año la violencia, la inseguridad y las presiones económicas obligan a decenas de miles de migrantes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras a buscar mejores medios de vida y oportunidades fuera de sus países de origen. Aunque algunos migrantes pueden ser elegibles para recibir protección humanitaria bajo los limitados sistemas de asilo y refugio en la región, la mayoría no puede acceder los caneles existentes de migración regular. Por esta razón, la ampliación de los programas de trabajo temporal puede ser un mecanismo importante para convertir algunos flujos migratorios irregulares en regulares.

Aunque la ampliación de los programas de empleo temporal de Estados Unidos, como las visas temporales H-2, es fundamental para establecer alternativas regionales a la migración irregular y cubrir la escasez de mano de obra nacional, es insuficiente sin la ampliación simultánea de programas similares en Canadá, México y Costa Rica.

Como parte de un proyecto del Migration Policy Institute, Building a Regional Migration System, este webcast presenta los resultados de un informe sobre las rutas de empleo temporal para los migrantes centroamericanos en Canadá, México y Costa Rica. Los ponentes ofrece un análisis del Programa de Trabajo Temporal para Extranjeros en Canadá, la Visa de Trabajador Fronterizo en México y el Acuerdo Binacional de Costa Rica con Nicaragua, ofreciendo recomendaciones para mejorar estas rutas y promover una migración segura, ordenada y regular.

Promising Alternatives to Irregular Migration: Expanding Temporary Worker Programs in Canada, Mexico, and Costa Rica

Violence, insecurity, and economic pressures compel tens of thousands of migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras every year to seek better livelihoods and opportunities outside their countries of origin. Some may be eligible for humanitarian protection under the limited asylum systems in the region, but most cannot access existing legal migration pathways. Expanding temporary worker programs therefore can offer an important means to convert some irregular flows into legal ones.

While expanding U.S. temporary employment programs, such as H-2 seasonal visas, is central to establishing regional alternatives to irregular migration and filling domestic labor shortages, it is insufficient without the simultaneous expansion of similar programs in Canada, Mexico, and Costa Rica.

As part of a Migration Policy Institute project, Building a Regional Migration System, this webcast presents research findings from a report on temporary employment pathways for Central American migrants in Canada, Mexico, and Costa Rica. Speakers offer an analysis of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program in Canada, the Border Worker Visa in Mexico, and Costa Rica’s Binational Agreement with Nicaragua, providing recommendations to improve these pathways and promote safe, orderly, and regular migration.

En Busqueda de Seguridad: Opciones de protección regional para personas de Centroamérica

En los últimos años, cientos de miles de Centroamericanos han huido de la violencia de pandillas o la violencia de género, violaciones a derechos humanos y problemas socioeconómicos exacerbados por desastres naturales en Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador. La gran mayoría han llegado a las fronteras de México y Estados Unidos para solicitar asilo y refugio, poniendo una gran presión sobre los sistemas de asilo y las capacidades de procesamiento de estos gobiernos. Como resultado, miles de personas han quedado en el limbo mientras esperan la resolución de sus casos.

Si bien los programas de reasentamiento de refugiados son una opción para evitar que las personas emprendan viajes peligrosos, hasta la fecha se han implementado de manera muy limitada en la región. Con el fin de buscar una solución a este creciente desafío, los formuladores de políticas en Canadá y Estados Unidos han comenzado a reconsiderar si el reasentamiento debería desempeñar un papel más importante en atender las necesidades regionales de protección, así como la manera en la que se podrían ampliar las vías humanitarias y de reasentamiento.

A la publicación de un informe del Instituto de Política Migratoria sobre posibles vías de protección para las personas centroamericanas, este webcast ofrece un análisis sobre las vías humanitarias y de reasentamiento que ya se utilizan en la región—incluido el Acuerdo de Traslado por Motivos de Protección, y otras modalidades de procesamiento dentro de país como el Programa de Menores Centroamericanos (CAM), así como el reasentamiento de refugiados en terceros países—y se discuten las oportunidades y los obstáculos para expandir estos programas. Los ponentes también brindan recomendaciones sobre acciones específicas que Estados Unidos y Canadá podrían tomar con base en sus sólidos sistemas de protección humanitaria.

El evento es en inglés con interpretación en español.


Seeking Safety: Regional Protection Options for Central Americans

Fleeing gang-related and gender-based violence, human-rights violations, and socioeconomic problems exacerbated by natural disasters in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, hundreds of thousands of Central American asylum seekers have arrived at the Mexican and U.S. borders, straining these governments’ asylum systems and processing capacities. As a result, thousands of asylum seekers have been left in limbo while they await the resolution of their cases. While refugee resettlement programs are an option to avoid undertaking dangerous journeys, they have been deployed on a very limited basis in the region to date.

Seeking a solution to this growing challenge, policymakers in Canada and the United States have begun to reconsider whether resettlement should play a larger role in addressing regional protection needs, and how resettlement and humanitarian pathways could be scaled up.

Marking the release of a Migration Policy Institute report on possible protection pathways for Central Americans, this webcast offers analysis on resettlement and humanitarian channels already utilized the region—including in-country processing, the Protection Transfer Arrangement, and third-country refugee resettlement—and the opportunities and obstacles to expanding these programs. Speakers will also provide recommendations for specific actions that the United States and Canada could take, given their well-established humanitarian protection systems.

Delivering on the Promise of Predeparture Counseling for Sustainable Reintegration

Posted in International Migration, European Migration by Migration Policy Institute on July 13th, 2022

The return and reintegration of irregular migrants and asylum seekers whose protection claims are rejected has become a top priority for policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic. In Europe, programs that assist returning migrants with reintegration into their countries and communities of origin have proliferated in the last decade.

Fostering the sustainable reintegration of returnees, however, it is not easy. Migrants often return to challenging circumstances and to changed local communities, and the stigma of an unsuccessful migration journey in some origin countries can further strain the transition into this new life. Reintegration programs aim to ease these challenges by providing assistance after return, such as aid to start a business or medical care. However, there is a newfound recognition among European policymakers that successful reintegration starts before return, and an increasing number of countries are investing in predeparture counseling. Counseling before return can help migrants prepare mentally for the journey ahead, develop a clear picture of life after return, and plan the first steps of their reintegration process, such as school enrolment or finding a job. Yet, the approaches to predeparture counseling still differ greatly in terms of methods, intensity, and the extent to which they involve partners in origin countries. Moreover, reintegration programs still face operational challenges to ensuring a smooth transition between the predeparture and post-arrival phases for returnees.

This discussion features experts and practitioners in origin and destination countries and examine how to leverage predeparture counseling for sustainable reintegration. The conversation accompanied the launch of an MPI Europe policy brief that explores promising approaches to strengthen the links between the predeparture and post-arrival phases in reintegration programs, improving returnees’ preparation for the journey ahead and increasing the chances that they will successfully reintegrate.

This webinar is part of a research partnership between MPI Europe and the European Return and Reintegration Network (ERRIN), funded through the European Union Asylum, Migration, and Integration Fund (AMIF), with co-financing from participating national authorities.

Fomentar la cohesión social para todos: ¿Qué podemos aprender de las intervenciones de desarrollo sobre cómo promover la inclusión y reducir la xenofobia?

 La preocupación por el aumento de la xenofobia y la discriminación ha provocado inversiones que promueven la cohesión social y combaten los prejuicios contra las personas que se desplazan. Estas preocupaciones son especialmente urgentes debido al aumento de la migración forzada y la pandemia mundial, la cual ha provocado el uso de los migrantes como chivos expiatorios, y cuyos efectos económicos devastadores pueden dañar aún más la cohesión social de las comunidades.  

Los gobiernos, las ONG y las organizaciones internacionales han pedido nuevas ideas para aprovechar la solidaridad y reducir los conflictos. Estas ideas ocupan un lugar importante en el Pacto Mundial para una Migración Segura, Ordenada y Regular. Sin embargo, se desconoce qué estrategias, desde las campañas digitales hasta las intervenciones de creación de comunidades, funcionan realmente para eliminar los prejuicios y mitigar las tensiones sociales. Este evento del Foro de Revisión de la Migración Internacional trata de iniciar una conversación práctica y necesaria sobre qué fomenta los sentimientos de confianza y qué estrategias evitan que se produzcan tensiones y prejuicios.  

El debate se centra en lo que ha sido eficaz para construir sociedades socialmente cohesionadas e inclusivas, examinando las lecciones de situaciones post-conflicto sobre cómo fomentar la confianza entre grupos además de explorar ejemplos de ideas prometedoras pero fallidas para entender por qué fracasaron en la práctica.  

Making Social Cohesion Work for Everyone: What Can We Learn from Development Interventions on How to Promote Inclusion and Reduce Xenophobia?

Concerns that xenophobia and discrimination are on the rise have sparked a panoply of investments in promoting social cohesion and combatting prejudice against people on the move. These concerns are particularly acute in the wake of rising forced displacement and a global pandemic that triggered widespread scapegoating of migrants, and whose economic devastation may further fray the social fabric of communities.

Governments, NGOs, and international organizations have called for new ideas to harness solidarity and reduce conflict, and these ideas have featured prominently in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration. Yet not enough is known on what actually works to reduce prejudice and mitigate social tensions, especially as so few interventions—from digital campaigns to community-building interventions—have been rigorously evaluated. This side event of the International Migration Review Forum (IMRF) aims to spark a much-needed, practical dialogue around what works to promote feelings of trust and blunt tensions and prejudice before they take root.

The discussion, featuring opening comments by the UN Assistant Secretary-General and Director of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Crisis Bureau, looks at what has been effective to build socially cohesive and inclusive societies—including lessons from post-conflict settings on how to build intergroup trust—as well as examples of promising ideas on paper that may have fallen short in practice, and why.

This side event was organized jointly by MPI, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and Enabel (the Belgian Development Agency) on the margins of the first IMRF.

The State of Global Human Mobility More than Two Years into the Pandemic

Posted in International Migration by Migration Policy Institute on July 5th, 2022

More than two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, governments are seeking to safely restart cross-border mobility of all types. But the complex patchwork of travel restrictions and health measures is preventing a swift return to pre-pandemic levels of movement, even in the face of major changes in the epidemiological situation, rising vaccination rates, and new therapeutics. And the global picture is uneven, with some regions, such as parts of Asia, still largely closed, and others, such as the European Union, keeping borders shut to unvaccinated travelers, leaving many out.

Since the onset of the public-health crisis, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) has tracked the more than 100,000 travel restrictions, border closures, and health-related travel requirements imposed by governments globally at the peak in 2021. How has the situation evolved in the second year of the pandemic? What steps have governments been taking to restart international travel and migration in safe and efficient ways? How do they adapt as new variants emerge in different places around the world? And as countries create exceptions to mobility restrictions for certain groups of travellers, what does this increasingly complex picture reveal about the inequalities between who can move and who cannot?

This discussion features experts from international organizations, government, civil society, and the private sector to examine the state of mobility during the second and now third years of the pandemic. The conversation accompanies the launch of an IOM-MPI report that draws from the IOM database to sketch the state of mobility across world regions.

Testing Disrupted: Assessment of English Learners Complicated by Pandemic

Posted in US Immigration Policy, Immigrant Integration by Migration Policy Institute on May 30th, 2022

In fall 2021, the educational experience for children changed dramatically, with many returning to the classroom for the first time in more than a year and a half. The nation’s 5 million English Learners (ELs) endured disproportionate impacts during this pandemic-induced period of distance learning due to a range of reasons, including gaps in digital access and inadequate support in languages other than English. The COVID-19 pandemic also challenged statewide assessment systems, in a year when many students were not attending school in person and instruction was of variable quality.

Unsurprisingly, there were downward trends in student performance visible across all students in English language arts, math, and among ELs, English language development. But what have state policymakers and school leaders learned from the 2020–21 state assessment data? How are they coupling assessment data with other metrics to inform investments and interventions that are personalized for ELs?

In a webinar marking the release of a report ( https://bit.ly/517ELtest ) that examines ELs’ learning experiences during the 2020-21 academic year and their performance and participation in statewide testing, experts offer their analysis of states’ assessment data and how instructional challenges and the pandemic affected the interpretation of these data. Speakers also explore challenges states faced and lessons learned in administering assessments and how schools are using data to inform interventions and instruction this year. Finally, they share their perspective of how the pandemic might change the approach states and districts take to measuring academic growth and success.

Public Narratives on Refugees: Sustaining Solidarity in Times of Crisis

The massive humanitarian exodus from Ukraine has upended global expectations of how quickly—and at what scale—host communities can welcome people fleeing their homes. The number of Ukrainians who fled to Poland within the first two weeks of the invasion surpassed the number of Venezuelans received by Colombia over a five-year period. Despite the potentially destabilizing pace and volume of arrivals from Ukraine, the policy response has been overwhelmingly supportive. So has the public response, with public opinion polling pointing to high support for Ukrainians across Europe.
But as the crisis continues, there are fears that these initial feelings of goodwill will fade and generosity fatigue will set in, much as occurred during the 2015-16 European migration and refugee crisis and in parts of South America with the arrivals of large numbers of Venezuelans. This raises several questions: How can immediate post-crisis solidarity be harnessed and made more sustainable, such that it can withstand emerging narratives of newcomers as threats to jobs and limited public services? How can feelings of goodwill be leveraged to spread to others rather than remaining narrowly focused on a particularly sympathetic population? And how can policy responses such as temporary stay permits build longer-term goodwill towards populations needing protection writ large?
This Migration Policy Institute webinar convenes international experts to consider what we know about public opinion and narratives on refugees and what this means for the Ukrainian crisis. This event marks the launch of a publication from the “Beyond Territorial Asylum: Making Protection Work in a Bordered World” initiative led by MPI and the Robert Bosch Stiftung. The initiative aims to advance ideas to redesign the global protection and resettlement infrastructure in a way that is more equitable, flexible, and sustainable.

With Millions of Unfilled U.S. Jobs, What Role Is There for Immigration?

Posted in US Immigration Policy, Immigrant Integration, Labor Migration by Migration Policy Institute on April 21st, 2022

The U.S. government in March 2022 announced record job vacancies, with 11.3 million unfilled positions. With an aging population, declining fertility, shifting skills needs, and the Great Resignation underway in part as baby boomers retire, the United States is experiencing a major labor market transformation that will challenge the country’s economic growth and competitiveness.

How these mega forces play out is yet to be seen. As a policy option, immigration has always been one of the levers available to address labor shortages or skills gaps. But beyond recruiting workers from abroad, developing and leveraging the skills of immigrants already in the United States represents a smart policy option. What role could underutilized high-skilled immigrant workers occupy in the changing labor market, especially in high-demand sectors such as health and education? What national and state policy options exist to maximize immigrants’ economic contributions by more fully tapping their talents and potential?

During this webcast, experts -- including MPI's Jeanne Batalova and Muzaffar Chishti, former U.S. Labor Department Chief Economist Harry J. Holzer, Upwardly Global's Jina Krause-Vilmar, and Alexandra Manuel -- highlighted the latest demographic and labor market trends shaped by growing automation and the COVID-19 pandemic. They also discussed the merits of three policy approaches that leverage immigrants’ talents to address labor and skills shortages: tapping the existing skills of underemployed college-educated immigrants, increasing immigrant adults’ access to postsecondary credentials, and attracting new talent through the immigration system. The webinar featured the launch of an MPI issue brief on the underemployment of skilled health-care workers in Illinois and Chicago ( https://bit.ly/immskills22 ).

Innovation Within Government. Rethinking and Modernizing Integration Policy Plenary Session

MPI Europe Director Hanne Beirens moderated a session where Laura Batalla from Ashoka Hello Europe Initiative, David Cashaback from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, Drocella Mugorewera from the Refugee Congress, Cameron McGlothlin of the U.S. Department of State's Office of Refugee Admissions, and Vincent Catot from the European Commission's Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, discussed these questions:

  • How is integration policymaking evolving, under the combined pressures of the pandemic, economic shifts, rising social needs, and technological transformation?
  • How have policymakers in Europe and North America responded to the need for rapid and agile policy action to address COVID-19-induced disruption, at a time in which many of their usual routines, practices, and tools have been upended? How might these experiences shape integration policy in the longer run—in its objectives, practices, and overall mission?
  • How can multi-level governance approaches and multi-stakeholder cooperation help governments address evolving integration challenges and promote innovation? How to ensure systematic learning and transfer between community-level innovations and government policy?

Strengthening the Social Innovation Ecosystem in Challenging Times

Posted in International Migration, European Migration, Migration Policy Institute Europe by Migration Policy Institute on April 1st, 2022

In this session, MPI's Meghan Benton led a conversation between Brian Ssebunya, the Economic Recovery and Development Senior Technical Advisor at International Rescue Committee;  Awmaima Amrayaf, DLA Piper's Pro Bono Legal Officer and Coordinator of ‘Know Your Rights’ program; and Asma Naimi from Esade Business School on the following questions:

  • How can we maximise the contribution of social-innovation models and players to advance refugee and migrant inclusion, as Europe and North America re-emerge from crisis?
  • How can promising innovations for inclusion leave their "comfort zone" and reach underserved places and groups where the challenges are tougher, but where the returns are potentially greater
  • What has been the private sector’s contribution to countering refugee and migrant vulnerability during the COVID-19 crisis—as an investor, employer, and knowledge provider? What opportunities exist to strengthen private-sector involvement—not just in kickstarting new solutions to inclusion, but in consolidating them and making them sustainable?
  • Talking about "inclusive recovery": What does the COVID-19 emergency tell us about the role of refugee and migrant entrepreneurs within social innovation ecosystems? What should programs supporting inclusive and diverse social entrepreneurship look like?

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